An interesting question, here three references for a deeper understanding:
The results in the BIOFACT analysis of the fuel slagging characteristics aligned with field observations and the partner’s evaluation of each boiler: as a hint, the higher slagging/agglomeration index (A2) for “RDF sample 1” was consistent with the greater slagging characteristics identified in the evaluation for the No. 1 Boiler. The No. 2 Boiler also experiences slagging but at a slower rate, which aligns with the lower A2 risk identified in the BIOFACT results.
In fact, the fuel quality differences between the two boilers played a role in the increased slagging observed in the No. 1 Boiler.
It was demonstrated that the BIOFACT analysis can be a useful tool when evaluating a fuel change or investigating a particular fuel related problem.
How are the EU member states contributing to the 20% target for EU’s renewable energy consumption? Which role for woody biomass and how this influences pellets trade?
A recent paper by Proskurina et al. (Biomass & Bioenergy; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.09.016) discusses this interesting topic. Among the conclusions:
Countries whose biomass still needs to increase from 15% to 30% have a realistic likelihood of reaching their own local biomass targets. Denmark, Lithuania, Italy, Spain, Slovakia are likely to increase woody biomass use for heat and electricity production.
In countries whose required biomass share increase is more than 30%, France and the UK have huge domestic energy consumption, thus, the development of renewables in these countries is crucial. Belgium and the Netherlands have woody biomass demand higher than potential.
Reported trends can be compared with new data from Schipfer et al. (CEBC, 2017, here) presenting their report (here) about the International wood pellet trade for Small-scale heating in the EU. Further details concerning the global wood pellets industry (2017 update) here.Continue Reading
Asia’s demand for biomass is growing rapidly. The majority of global demand growth for industrial wood pellets after 2018 is expected to come, due to energy policy, from Japan and South Korea.
In Japan, the market is supported by a feed-in-tariff (FIT) scheme which provides a 20-year subsidy to firms producing renewable energy. By March 2017 almost 12GW of biomass projects had been approved under the FIT scheme. Industrial groups are moving in this direction, as an example, ENGIE recently signed a 15-year biomass supply contract with Mitsui & Co., Ltd.
Biomass type used in Japan, in general, will be industrial pellets (from Canada, US, Vietnam, Russia) and low grade biomass such as palm kernel shells (PKS) mainly imported from Indonesia and Malaysia.
BIOFACT was recently involved in the analysis of a sample of Palm Kernel Shells. The results are reported in the following.
Download the BIOFACT Fuel Report for a Sample of Palm Kernel Shells
(The results are related to the specific sample: do not represent generalised fuel behaviour)
We have been recently involved in the screening of lignin rich residues from the biofuels industry!
Lignin rich streams are a side product from agro residues biorefining. Hydrolytic or dried lignin rich effluents may be used e.g. for heat and power production in gasification and combustion installations.
Example of lignin rich residues from lignocellulose bio refining. Courtesy of N. Cerone et al. by the ENEA, presented at the 25th EUBC&E, Stockholm. All rights reserved to owner.
We screened three samples of lignin rich residues from different sources, for potential energy production applications. For the sake of simplicity, samples have been enumerated here progressively #1-3.
Lignin rich residue #1
Lignin rich residue #2
Lignin rich residue #3
Results are very sample specific and depend on the feedstock initially processed in the biofuels production plant. This information was carefully considered to further explore issues in the lignin residues energy valorization in bio refineries.
BIOFACT helps to define the applicability of different samples of the same fuel but with different compositions.Continue Reading
Interviews are in French, please activate the subtitles in the player window.
A film by G. Goma, M. Fyferling.
We have been recently involved in the screening of pellets from low grade woody biomass fuels.
A very interesting variety of pellets are shrub pellets. Shrubs are small to medium-sized woody plants (shorter height than trees) which have persistent stems above the ground. Some of them are invasive species and are growing wild, with the risk of destroying the wildlife habitat.
Harvesting for energy valorization purposes might be a smart management solution. However, from the point of view of the fuel quality, they represent a lower quality range of woody fuels.
We studied for a partner two pellets samples, one reference sample of A1 pine pellets and a sample of the shrub pellets.
A1 pine pellets BIOFACT-C results
Shrub pellets BIOFACT-C results
Combustion tests were performed in a Hargassner boiler (40 kW th) for the two pellets type and the experimental results confirmed the predicted outcomes by the BIOFACT report concerning emissions and ash risks when comparing the two fuels.
Experimental results* are reported here (to compare predictions and experimental results between the two fuels).
A1 pine pellets
Experimental data (including T, duration, text matrix) are published*.
BIOFACT helped to define the applicability of different fuel samples and is a powerful predictive tool before investing for the combustion pilot tests.
Shrub pellets slag matter (shrub pellets combustion).
Fouling on convection pass (shrub pellets combustion).
*Mediavilla et al., Energy 141 (2017).Continue Reading
Completed questionnaires (>40 entries)
Which operational risks (in combustion) should be predicted by a fuel characterization tool?
Fuel-technology coupling: which technologies should be considered?
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