VGB report (March 2018) available here: vgb.org/flexibility_toolbox.html?dfid=90943
In the report “Wise Rules for Industrial Energy Efficiency”, the EPA develops a comprehensive list of baic rules relating to boiler efficiency improvements.
• Boiler Rule 1. Effective boiler load management techniques, such as operating on high fire settings or installing smaller boilers, can save over 7% of a typical facility’s total energy use with an average simple payback of less than 2 years.
• Boiler Rule 2. Load management measures, including optimal matching of boiler size and boiler load, can save as much as 50% of a boiler’s fuel use.
• Boiler Rule 3. An upgraded boiler maintenance program including optimizing air-to-fuel ratio, burner maintenance, and tube cleaning, can save about 2% of a facility’s total energy use with an average simply payback of 5 months.
• Boiler Rule 4. A comprehensive tune-up with precision testing equipment to detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unburned fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures can result in boiler fuel savings of 2% to 20%.
• Boiler Rule 5. A 3% decrease in flue gas O2 typically produces boiler fuel savings of 2%.
• Boiler Rule 6. Every 40°F reduction in net stack temperature (outlet temperature minus inlet combustion air temperature is estimated to save 1% to 2% of a boiler’s fuel use.
• Boiler Rule 7. Removing a 1/32 inch deposit on boiler heat transfer surfaces can decrease a boiler’s fuel use by 2%; removal of a 1/8 inch deposit can decrease boiler fuel use by over 8%.
• Boiler Rule 8. For every 11°F that the entering feedwater temperature is increased, the boiler’s fuel use is reduced by 1%.
- Icing on aircrafts (water droplets)
- Ash deposition in aero-engines (volcanic ash particles)
- Deposition in gas turbines (soot and aerosols)
- Respiratory tract studies (aerosols or sprays)
- Spray coating (droplets of paint)
- Diesel engines (diesel droplets)
- Heat exchanger fouling in various industries such as crude oil, food, desalination, automotive or other processes.
• Replacement of equipment and buildings
• Excess capacity
• Redundant equipment
• Maintenance and repair
• Corrosion control
• Materials of construction
• Corrosion allowance
• Special processing
• Loss of product
• Technical support
• Parts and equipment inventory
Solid biomass energy consumption trend swings depend on public policies promoting its use, but they are also highly susceptible to weather conditions. In 2018, it was a mixed bag, with variations across its uses. The demand for heat declined in the European Union, due to a milder winter, while there was a rise in electricity production. All in all, the sector’s primary energy consumption was stable (0.3% lower than in 2017) and is still below the 100 Mtoe threshold (99.3 Mtoe).
Example for a possible examination depth of the unavailability analysis (courtesy of VGB)