Where will the dispatchable power come from, after the coal phase-out?

Where will the dispatchable power come from, after the coal phase-out?

  • Conventional -> Natural gas.
  • Storage -> Pumped storage hydro; Battery storage.
  • Renewables -> Biomass, biogas, green gases (H2, CH4, etc.).

What about the coal phase out in the EU, from the regulator perspectives (data and animation courtesy of Climate Analytics)?

Detail for Italy (example)

Unit Name Opening year Closing year Regulator Closing year Market
Italy Brindisi Nord power station Unit 3 1979 2024 2020
Italy Brindisi Nord power station Unit 4 1979 2024 2020
Italy Pietro Vannucci power station Unit 1 1989 2024 2020
Italy Pietro Vannucci power station Unit 2 1990 2025 2020
Italy Andrea Palladio power station Unit 3 1974 2025 2025
Italy Andrea Palladio power station Unit 4 1974 2025 2025
Italy Sulcis power station Unit 3 1986 2026 2028
Italy Fiume Santo power station Unit 1 1992 2026 2028
Italy Fiume Santo power station Unit 2 1993 2026 2028
Italy Sulcis power station Unit 2 2005 2026 2028
Italy Porto Marghera Alsar power station Unit 1 1977 2027 2020
Italy Palermo (B) 2004 2027 2020
Italy Brescia 3 1988 2027 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 1 1991 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 2 1992 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 3 1992 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 4 1993 2028 2028
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 1 2009 2029 2020
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 2 2010 2030 2028
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 3 2010 2030 2029

No Fuel Is Ever the Same / Episode 4: SRC

Combustion properties of each fuel are different, depending on the specific sample characteristics.

Even within the same fuel type, differences are found in the predicted combustion behaviour.

The “No fuel is ever the Same” Serie is a set of posts focussing specific fuels, selected within the interesting AgroBioHeat EU project.

The ash behaviour is evaluated with the BIOFACT Fuel App, an online tool for qualitative fuels screening. The AgroBioHeat Factsheet for the specific fuel type is also reported for your information.

Episode 4: SRC

SRC sample 1

SRC sample 2

The BIOFACT Fuel App is a tool validated against pilot and real scale tests, contact us for further information.

Factsheet courtesy: agrobioheat.eu. The nice factsheets can be downloaded from https://agrobioheat.eu/agrobiomass-factsheets/.

 

No Fuel Is Ever the Same / Episode 3: prunings

Combustion properties of each fuel are different, depending on the specific sample characteristics.

Even within the same fuel type, differences are found in the predicted combustion behaviour.

The “No fuel is ever the Same” Serie is a set of posts focussing specific fuels, selected within the interesting AgroBioHeat EU project.

The ash behaviour is evaluated with the BIOFACT Fuel App, an online tool for qualitative fuels screening. The AgroBioHeat Factsheet for the specific fuel type is also reported for your information.

Episode 3: prunings

Pruning sample 1

Pruning sample 2

The BIOFACT Fuel App is a tool validated against pilot and real scale tests, contact us for further information.

Factsheet courtesy: agrobioheat.eu. The nice factsheets can be downloaded from https://agrobioheat.eu/agrobiomass-factsheets/.

 

No Fuel Is Ever the Same / Episode 2: olive by-product residues

Combustion properties of each fuel are different, depending on the specific sample characteristics.

Even within the same fuel type, differences are found in the predicted combustion behaviour.

The “No fuel is ever the Same” Serie is a set of posts focussing specific fuels, selected within the interesting AgroBioHeat EU project.

The ash behaviour is evaluated with the BIOFACT Fuel App, an online tool for qualitative fuels screening. The AgroBioHeat Factsheet for the specific fuel type is also reported for your information.

Episode 2: Olive residues

Olive residues sample 1

Olive residues sample 2

The BIOFACT Fuel App is a tool validated against pilot and real scale tests, contact us for further information.

Factsheet courtesy: agrobioheat.eu. The nice factsheets can be downloaded from https://agrobioheat.eu/agrobiomass-factsheets/.

 

No Fuel Is Ever the Same / Episode 1: Miscanthus

Combustion properties of each fuel are different, depending on the specific sample characteristics.

Even within the same fuel type, differences are found in the predicted combustion behaviour.

The “No fuel is ever the Same” Serie is a set of posts focussing specific fuels, selected within the interesting AgroBioHeat EU project.

The ash behaviour is evaluated with the BIOFACT Fuel App, an online tool for qualitative fuels screening. The AgroBioHeat Factsheet for the specific fuel type is also reported for your information.

Episode 1: Miscanthus

Miscanthus sample 1

Miscanthus sample 2

The BIOFACT Fuel App is a tool validated against pilot and real scale tests, contact us for further information.

Factsheet courtesy: agrobioheat.eu. The nice factsheets can be downloaded from https://agrobioheat.eu/agrobiomass-factsheets/.

 

The EU Biofficiency project (2016-2019): executive summary

The EU funded project Biofficiency developed some tests on pre-treated fuels and a blueprint for the modern biomass cogeneration plants. We summarize the key conclusions which relate to fuel ash.

  • Additives and materials
    • Deposits tests in PF boilers to reduce deposition showed that the additive amount has a greater important than the type of additive. In particular, within the 4 MW CFB tests, elemental S was found to be the most cost-effective additive (with respect to kaolin). 200 kW tests showed that in PF beech wood combustion with 1% kaolin decreased PM1 emissions by 33%; by 75% with 2.4% kaolin.
    • 800 MWth CHP Avendore U2 and Studstrup U3 tests showed that coal fly ash addition decreased the submicron aerosol particles, but kept the K-Ca-S sintered downstream deposits (sootblowing was maintained). SH Cl corrosion on TP347H/HFG, SUPER 304H, Esshete 1250 was mitigated with 2,5% coal fly ash addition, but corrosion by sulphidation was observed.
    • With lab tests to test high steam temperature, at 650°C, only the austenitic SS TP310HCbN survived to heavy KCl corrosion.
  • Pre-treatments
    • Torrefaction increased the ash content without causing compositional changes, but if followed by a washing step it decreased alkali and Cl content, consequently increasing ash melting temperatures.
    • Steam explosion did not induce significant ash compositional changes, a slightly decreased ash melting temperature was found.
    • Hydrothermal carbonization decreased alkali and Cl content, yielded high Si-ashes and higher melting temperatures.
    • Detailed fuel and ash data are now publicly available and those could be used in our numerical modelling.
  • State of the art PF power plant design expected at 2.7 k€/kWel: 300 MWth, 560°C steam temperature and 92-94% efficiency, fuelled by wood pellets, dry de-ashing with ash recirculation, additivation with coal fly ash for SH and Denox SCR reactor protection including ash utilization oriented plant operation.