Where will the dispatchable power come from, after the coal phase-out?

Where will the dispatchable power come from, after the coal phase-out?

  • Conventional -> Natural gas.
  • Storage -> Pumped storage hydro; Battery storage.
  • Renewables -> Biomass, biogas, green gases (H2, CH4, etc.).

What about the coal phase out in the EU, from the regulator perspectives (data and animation courtesy of Climate Analytics)?

Detail for Italy (example)

Unit Name Opening year Closing year Regulator Closing year Market
Italy Brindisi Nord power station Unit 3 1979 2024 2020
Italy Brindisi Nord power station Unit 4 1979 2024 2020
Italy Pietro Vannucci power station Unit 1 1989 2024 2020
Italy Pietro Vannucci power station Unit 2 1990 2025 2020
Italy Andrea Palladio power station Unit 3 1974 2025 2025
Italy Andrea Palladio power station Unit 4 1974 2025 2025
Italy Sulcis power station Unit 3 1986 2026 2028
Italy Fiume Santo power station Unit 1 1992 2026 2028
Italy Fiume Santo power station Unit 2 1993 2026 2028
Italy Sulcis power station Unit 2 2005 2026 2028
Italy Porto Marghera Alsar power station Unit 1 1977 2027 2020
Italy Palermo (B) 2004 2027 2020
Italy Brescia 3 1988 2027 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 1 1991 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 2 1992 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 3 1992 2028 2028
Italy Brindisi Sud power station Unit 4 1993 2028 2028
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 1 2009 2029 2020
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 2 2010 2030 2028
Italy Torrevaldaliga Nord power station Unit 3 2010 2030 2029

The EU Biofficiency project (2016-2019): executive summary

The EU funded project Biofficiency developed some tests on pre-treated fuels and a blueprint for the modern biomass cogeneration plants. We summarize the key conclusions which relate to fuel ash.

  • Additives and materials
    • Deposits tests in PF boilers to reduce deposition showed that the additive amount has a greater important than the type of additive. In particular, within the 4 MW CFB tests, elemental S was found to be the most cost-effective additive (with respect to kaolin). 200 kW tests showed that in PF beech wood combustion with 1% kaolin decreased PM1 emissions by 33%; by 75% with 2.4% kaolin.
    • 800 MWth CHP Avendore U2 and Studstrup U3 tests showed that coal fly ash addition decreased the submicron aerosol particles, but kept the K-Ca-S sintered downstream deposits (sootblowing was maintained). SH Cl corrosion on TP347H/HFG, SUPER 304H, Esshete 1250 was mitigated with 2,5% coal fly ash addition, but corrosion by sulphidation was observed.
    • With lab tests to test high steam temperature, at 650°C, only the austenitic SS TP310HCbN survived to heavy KCl corrosion.
  • Pre-treatments
    • Torrefaction increased the ash content without causing compositional changes, but if followed by a washing step it decreased alkali and Cl content, consequently increasing ash melting temperatures.
    • Steam explosion did not induce significant ash compositional changes, a slightly decreased ash melting temperature was found.
    • Hydrothermal carbonization decreased alkali and Cl content, yielded high Si-ashes and higher melting temperatures.
    • Detailed fuel and ash data are now publicly available and those could be used in our numerical modelling.
  • State of the art PF power plant design expected at 2.7 k€/kWel: 300 MWth, 560°C steam temperature and 92-94% efficiency, fuelled by wood pellets, dry de-ashing with ash recirculation, additivation with coal fly ash for SH and Denox SCR reactor protection including ash utilization oriented plant operation.

Effects of air preheating and FGR on PM release and NOx emissions: 2020-21 updates

Recent works on that topic, checked for a Customer, include:

Archan, G., Anca-Couce, A., Buchmayr, M., Hochenauer, C., Gruber, J., Scharler, R., 2021. Experimental evaluation of primary measures for NOX and dust emission reduction in a novel 200 kW multi-fuel biomass boiler. Renewable Energy 170, 1186–1196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.02.055

Meng, X., Ismail, T.M., Zhou, W., Yan, Y., Ren, X., Sun, R., Abd El-Salam, M., 2021. Numerical study of preheating primary air on pinewood and corn straw co-combustion in a fixed bed using Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Fuel 289, 119455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119455

Meng, X., Zhou, W., Yan, Y., Ren, X., Ismail, T.M., Sun, R., 2020a. Effects of preheating primary air and fuel size on the combustion characteristics of blended pinewood and corn straw in a fixed bed. Energy 210, 118481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.118481

Pérez-Orozco, R., Patiño, D., Porteiro, J., Larrañaga, A., 2020a. Flue Gas Recirculation during Biomass Combustion: Implications on PM Release. Energy Fuels 34, 11112–11122. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c02086

Pérez-Orozco, R., Patiño, D., Porteiro, J., Rico, J.J., 2020b. The effect of primary measures for controlling biomass bed temperature on PM emission through analysis of the generated residues. Fuel 280, 118702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118702

Raheem, D.G., Yilmaz, B., Kayahan, U., Özdoğan, S., 2020. Effect of Recycled Flue Gas Ratio on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite Oxy-Combustion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed. Energy Fuels 34, 14786–14795. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c02464