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The composition of ash forming matter in the biomass fuels is largely varying and depends on multiple factors, not only the biomass type. For example, for biomass, poor-in-nutrients soils can reduce the plant’s capacity to uptake inorganic substances. It was demonstrated that, in spruce, tree branches and twigs contain a higher content of inorganic matter (especially K, Na, Si) than stem wood. It is also known that delayed harvest in spring can result in a reduced inorganic content (especially K).
In this overview, a summary of twelve factors which can influence the biomass fuels inorganic composition is proposed.
1. The plant species, e.g. variety, genotype.
2. The state of the plant development or age, the plant growth cycles/season.
3. The part of the plant considered (and mixes) such as leaves, bark, stem, fibres, tops.
|Soil, climate and agricultural practises
4. The soil characteristics: type, pH, nutrients or composition, pollutants, water quality.
5. The type of fertilization or pesticides applied.
6. The climate of the location: rains, atmospheric pollutants and external environmental factors (E.g. road side vegetation contaminated with salt (road de-icing); biomass from river maintenance; driftwood.)
|Harvesting, transport, pre-treatment
7. The selected harvest date and season.
8. The collection method, harvesting operations (soil and dust incorporation, machines pollution, biological contamination) and transport conditions (ships, trucks potential contaminations).
9. The storage type/time, if any, and the drying (or other pre-treatment/upgrading) type/duration, if any.
10. The size reduction e.g. the fineness of the fuel or particles size distribution.
|Analyses of the samples
11. The material sampling method and its representativeness (sampling standards).
12. The ashing method and the ashing temperatures (production of the ash sample to analyse) as well as the analytical instrumentation used for the ash composition analyses (errors theory).
These factors can influence the inorganic matter content of each biomass, that is why each fuel is different.
It might be complex for producers to control those factors, especially for low-grade or opportunity fuels. Detailed compositional data for the specific fuel to be processed are needed and it is not recommended to consider literature data.
In our thermochemical simulations, we study the ash behaviour of the specific fuel sample, mixture or portfolio, processed in each specific energy plant.
Expected biomass projects in Europe 2020-2021 (total > 6 million ton/year)
|EPH||Lynemouth||396||Dedicated 100%||Commissioning Ranged 57-85% weekly availability
|MGT||Teeside||299||Dedicated 100%||Planned 31 July 2020||1-1.2mn t/yr|
|RWE||Amer||630||80% by 2020||38% in Q3 2019||1.7-1.8mn t/yr|
|RWE||Eemshaven A & B||777||15%||“Almost at 15%” in
|Uniper||MPP3||1.1GW||15%||November 2019 start||200,000-250,000 t/yr|
|Onyx Power||Rotterdam||731||10%||Offline until April 2020||500,000-550,000 t/yr|
Expected biomass projects in South Korea during 2020-2022 (total > 4 million ton/year of pellets and chips)
|Company||Plant||Capacity (MW)||Start-up||Wood pellet (t/yr)||Wood chip (t/yr)|
|Korea South East Power (Koen)||Yeongdong unit 2||200||June 2020||900.000|
|CGN Daesan Power||CGN Daesan Power||109||December 2020||500.000|
|GS EPS||Dangjin unit 2||105||December 2020||300.000||200.000|
|SMG Energy||SMG biomass power
|100||delayed to June-July 2021||430.000|
|Gwangyang Green Energy||Gwangyang biomass
|220||July 2022 (delayed)||480.000||528.000|
|Korea Midland Power||Gunsan Bio||200||December 2022 (delayed)||800.000|
Source: Biomass markets adjust to challenging times. Steady growth in demand.
Webinar – 19 March 2020. Public Argusmedia.com Market report
The BIOFACT Ash Chart is a high quality synthetic plot of the amounts of the inorganic fraction for 500+ solid biomass fuels. The fuels are belonging to different classes (20+) such as stem woods, barks, straws and grasses, shells and husks, fruits and residues, animal and industrial wastes. Median values for fossil fuels are included for comparison. It is useful to expand your overview on the renewable fuels portfolio.
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This study reviews a laboratory methodology developed in the AshMelt EU project and by the TFZ, as the current best direct experimental method to predict the slagging tendency of biomass fuels, with test results quickly available and no fuel pretreatment.
|EU||USA||South America||Africa||South East Asia||China and India|
|Wheat stalk||Juliaflora||Sugar cane bagasse (Brazil, Mexico)||Elephant grass||Rubber wood||Sugar cane bagasse|
|Soya stalk||Juliaflora||Juliaflora||Sugar cane bagasse (Thailand)||Mustard stalk|
|Groundnut shell||Coffee husk||Coffee husk||Eucalyptus (Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia)||Coconut shell|
|Cotton stalk||Soya stalk (Brazil, Argentina)||Rubber wood||Rice husk||Soya stalk|
|Wheat stalk||Acacia wood||Acacia wood||Coffee husk||Groundnut shell|
|Mesquite wood||Invader bush||Coconut shell (Indonesia, Philippines)||Cotton stalk|
|Shea tree||Acacia (Australia)||Wheat stalk|
|Bamboo (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand)||Bamboo|
Fuel analyses (available for same samples, upon request) can be used to produce sample specific BIOFACT Fuel Dashboards and simulation Reports of slagging, fouling and corrosion in combustion boilers.
The previous table integrates the IEA Clean Coal Centre summary related to low grade fuels.
Contact us for additional information related to the ash related risks of different fuels for new of existing boilers.
Here an example of calculation of temperature profile across a steam cooled pipe. Different scenarios can be computed depending on the expected fouling rate.
The approach here presented is used to determine representative fuel input values to be considered for reliable thermochemical simulations. Sensitivity analyses are also considered (not presented here).